Children, care & development – ”3-5 years old”

Children over 5

Children over 5 years of age are naturally inquisitive and so will be braver to explore and can get into more trouble! Although these children will be going to school they still need lots of activities to do to keep them busy and out of and swimming

3 – 4 years physical development
Pre-schoolers are all about the physical – they love to jump, skip, run, climb and dance. In fact, anything that’s new and that won’t require them to sit still for too long. But they’re also like puppies – running full steam until they completely run out of energy, at which point they’ll collapse somewhere utterly exhausted.
Developmental milestones include:
 Balancing to walk along a plank
 Pedalling a tricycle
 Rolling and bouncing a ball – and a few can catch a ball, too
 Holding a pencil with the correct grip
 Buttoning up clothing
 Cutting with scissors
 Climbing a ladder and trees
 Standing, walking and running on tiptoes
 Balancing on one foot for several seconds
 Using a spoon and fork correctly
 Building a bridge using three blocks

How can I encourage his physical development?
 Ensure that he has plenty of physical freedom where he can develop some independence.
 Teach him some skills that will open new doors for him – how to swim, how to pedal a bike, how to hit a ball with a bat.
 Give him the space to work things out for himself. He’ll build his self-esteem if he can work something out on his own.
 Allow him the time he needs to ‘get things right’ himself. Some pre-schoolers really resist help, so don’t jump in unless you’re asked.
4 – 5 years physical development 
After his three year-old self spent a good portion of the last year developing gross and fine motor skills, it’s no wonder that your four year-old has great confidence in his physical abilities. But this confidence is not always matched by ability so he still needs close supervision when he plays.
Developmental milestone include:
 Walking confidently, one foot on each step, up and down stairs
 Using a bat and ball with confidence – he can now throw, catch and bounce a ball
 Climbing trees and ladders with ease
 Running at speed
 Jumping with two feet over objects
 Walking for a short distance along a line before falling off
 Pedalling well, and may even be learning to ride a two-wheeler with training wheels
 Hopping – although this is usually very wobbly
 Threading beads
 Learning how to swing himself on a swing – even though he’d still like you to believe that he needs you to push!
 Confidently self-dressing
 Being in charge of his own toileting – although he may still wet the bed at night.

What can I do to encourage his physical development?
 Play plenty of games with him that involve sorting and matching objects – try sorting beads into different colours or shapes before he begins threading, play Go Fish or Snap card games with him.
 Give him lots of time outside playing. Use a large ball and have a game of ‘cricket’ with him.
 Do your teaching through playing with him – avoid the expectations of ‘lessons’.
 Get down and dirty with him and do some craft. Try making play dough from scratch and then start modelling.
Want to know more about the ideal way to practise your language skills?! This age group is great for learning together, ‘make believe’, storytelling and learning songs together – ENJOY!

4 – 5 years speech and language development 
Four year olds are often great conversationalists and love to talk about the details of all sorts of scientific and important subjects. Your child wants to find out about all aspects of life and talking about things is a very important way of understanding how the world works.
Developmental milestones include:
 Speaking clearly on the whole, but he may still not use some sounds correctly – ‘the’ for’s’ or ‘w’ for ‘r’.
 Asking about the meaning of words
 Telling long stories where reality and fantasy are intertwined
 Asking many, many questions
 Arguing his point and offering his ideas about things
 Talking about the future – what he thinks might happen, or what he hopes will happen
 Knowing a few songs and rhymes
 Enjoying jokes – he’ll particularly like anything to do with toilets, bums or farts! What can I do to encourage his speech and language development?
 Take the time to talk to your children about his day – now that he’s having experiences without you at pre-school, you’ll find he has a lot to report!
 Continue to read with your child. Talk about what’s happening in the pictures; let him act out the story.